Climate Change: By Two Major
Cosmo Publishing, (27. June 2022) English, 307 Pages ,
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monthly NASA temperature maps
C1. War brings
ice age back
winter of 1939/40 does not only cover the first six months of a six
year-long murderous war but it also marks the first very pronounced
climatic shift into a cooling trend since the end of the Little Ice
Age. The shift did not come as a gradual change from warming to
cooling, but temperatures over
Unfortunately, back in summer 1939 there was no voice that warned Adolf Hitler and his consorts that a major war in general, and a naval warfare in particular, would bear a high risk of dangerous interfering with weather and atmospheric conditions, with unknown consequences. In addition, no
“Nature is still more powerful
than man. I can fight man but I cannot fight nature when I lack the
means to carry out such a battle. We did not ask for ice, snow and
cold - a higher power sent it to us” and
“These troubles, naturally, take
precedence over yours. They are not a German patent – look at the
nations around that have the same difficulties.”
H. Göring, the chief of the aviation, air force, and weather
services was mistaken. The winter severity was man-made, not
necessarily alone, but the war contributed substantially to the harsh
conditions. Without naval war during the autumn of 1939 the subsequent
winter would not have turned out as cold as in the severest winters
during the Little Ice Age. After record conditions in January 1940 (see
TM4, next page), many locations in Europe faced extreme temperatures
in February again, reported by New York Times (NYT, Feb. 14-16), for
example: Copenhagen –25°F/-32°C, Baltic countries –54°F/-48°C,
Budapest –28°F/–33°C, and the NYT titled a report on February 21st:
“Scandinavia is colder.
The whole matter should have been a shock to political leaders and meteorological services around the world, but not even the smallest raise of an eyebrow could be observed. At latest by the end of February 1940, it was possible to realize that the harsh winter conditions did not have come out of the blue, but had something to do with the war machinery in action. After 80 years with mild winters (Rodewald, 1948), the trend was stopped by surprising abruptness. From now on it was possible to realize that naval warfare had pushed the sea areas in the realm of the European continent into conditions that prevented them to supply the atmosphere with the heat as it used to do during peacetime.
Map 4 (TM4), Fig. C1-6; online: www.seaclimate.com.
nothing happened to understand and explain the conditions and the
story of the making of extreme winter weather over the first six
months into WWII, neither in spring 1940, nor when also the next two
war winters ran amok, and not even after WWII had ended. Meanwhile 70
years have passed and science still does not know why the winter
1939/40 was the coldest for more than a century in parts of
is very difficult to understand. For climate research the first war
winter offered a unique chance to study climatic changes, and
anthropogenic relevance. In a flippant way one could say: “Bingo”.
is no question that the cruelty man did to man during the war was pure
horror and extremely sad. But if the war is called a unique
opportunity, the situation is different, namely man versus nature.
Seeing it this way the entire situation, as it was so many decades ago,
could be used as a worst scenario for a good cause, by regarding the
first six months of naval war as a large-scale field-experiment with
The condition for an experiment in autumn 1939 and winter
1939/40 is ideal:
Nature has been warming since the
end of the Little Ice Age.
No unusual event, e.g. sun spots,
volcano, tsunami, had been observed.
No one had expected a sudden
arrival of an extreme winter.
During the first months at war
man’s activities took place in a natural environment, in the sense
that data records and series had not been altered by an anthropogenic
impact. This is an aspect one cannot be sure of, concerning the amount
of data collected the longer the war lasted.
During the first few months any war
and naval activities could to some limited extent be viewed
individually, which seems widely impossible the more war activities
increased, spread, intensified, and lasted.
However, there are two very
important pre-conditions regarding the early war months fit for a
field experiment, they are:
That war activities commence in
September. At this time the sea areas around Great Britain, the North
Sea, and Baltic cease to store summer heat, and the progress reverses,
The experiment is undertaken during
the winter season, when the direct influence of the sun between
It is furthermore to be noted that
the naval war during the first war months was not limited to the North
Sea and Baltic, but reached far out into the North Atlantic and up to
The confinement of the investigation to the winter season is the key to detect the cause of the extreme winter weather 1939/40, namely, naval warfare in the marine environment.
Hermann Göring was a celebrated WWI air fighter pilot
who joined the Nazi movement as early as 1923, and in 1933 became
secretary of aviation. He became also the head of the weather
services, e.g. the “Seewarte” in
Herman Göring in
a speech in